Techniques for growing oyster mushrooms

The preparatory work

To get started, to prepare the substrate (sunflower husk, sawdust of deciduous trees). The substrate must meet the following quality criteria.

Sunflower husks should have

— The fresh smell of sunflowers;
— Absence of impurities;
— Humidity above 30%

For the preparation of a mushroom block (using a plastic bag 350 x 750 mm) to 25 liters (2.5 buckets) of dry substrate. The substrate should be stored in a dry place in polypropylene bags.

To create a mushroom beds are needed plastic bags (350 x 750 mm). They must be purchased in quantities that are required for floor space for production of oyster mushrooms. Pre-treatment does not require bags.

Mycelium purchase on demand. On the creation of a single mushroom block (one bag) requires 150-200 g of mycelium. Shelf life of the mycelium at 20 ° C to 24 ° C — 24 hours, from 15 degrees C to 18 ° C — 3 days. from 0 to 2 degrees C — 2 weeks, from -2 to 0 ° C — 1 Month

Activators or growth factors (organic additives) that can be used for growing oyster mushrooms should be applied in accordance with the recommendations of the developers. This kind of additives increases the yield up to 30 percent and significantly reduce the cycle of growth. Powdered activators typically made at the stage of processing of the substrate and the liquid — just prior to inoculation (seeding) of mycelium.

The processing of the substrate

In adding the required number of substrate «bioactivator» in the amount of 1-2 percent by weight or, in his absence, slaked lime in an amount of 1% and zernoothody 5.10 percent by weight and stir. The dry mixture is placed in a woven polypropylene bag and tying it.

— Polypropylene bags with organic substrate immersed in the appropriate-sized container that holds water. Pasteurization (soaking) produce hot water (+ € 5 ° -70 ° C). The water should completely cover the substrate. After 2.5-3 hours of soaking bags and extract for 8-10 hours giving water to drain, substrate temperature to cool down to +20-26 ° C.

Upon reaching this temperature, the substrate can begin the process of inoculation (seeding) of mycelium. Ready wetted substrate crumbles easily and does not stick to hands.

Mycelium from the refrigerator 3-4 hours before sowing, and bring to room temperature (20 ° — 22 ° C).

Thoroughly wash our hands (it is desirable to use rubber gloves, which are also thoroughly disinfect) and crumble the mycelium to the individual grains into a clean bowl (bowl pre-disinfect with alcohol or parboiled)

WARNING! Mycelium at the time of inoculation should be at room temperature. Planting is carried out by two men. One holds a new, clean plastic bag, the other pours into the bag, pasteurized substrate, adding to it and thoroughly mixing the required amount of mycelium in the amount of 2-2.5% (150-180 g for 1 Mushroom pack — 7-8 kg of substrate).

Falling asleep pasteurized substrate and mixing it with the mycelium, knead the contents of the bag by hand (increasing the density of the substrate is approximately 1.5 times), so that there was no voids (especially in the lower corners of the bag) (Fig. 2).

After sowing the neck of the bag, tying with string.

Mushroom power reserve in a clean room for 24-30 hours, then on the side opposite surfaces of the block in a checkerboard pattern makes 2-3 slots 5-7 cm in length (additional recommended to make a few punctures at the corners (bottom) for the outflow of the mushroom block excess moisture .)

Mushroom unit (bed) is prepared

Incubation (germination) of mycelium

Fungal units are installed vertically. The distance between them of 10 cm mycelium grows at room temperature from +16 ° to +22 ° C. During this period the most important factor is the temperature and the presence of fresh air. Coverage of periodic, watering is not required.

1-2 days after inoculation on the surface of a substrate in mushroom block appear pronounced white spots. In the normal development of fungal mycelium temperature inside the block at 4 ° -6 ° C above room temperature. The optimum temperature in the mushroom block +24 ° +26 ° C. When the temperature inside the substrate to +29 ° C and more urgent should be cooled room (ventilation, draft, forced ventilation).

At the 5 — 8-day surface of the substrate becomes light brown. The temperature in the substrate by 1 «2 ° C above ambient temperature. On 10 — 12th day of the substrate mycelium penetrated into a dense, homogenous white color block.

In the area of the slot is «natural» forms of the differential humidity, air exchange, temperature and light, which greatly accelerate the process of maturation of the mycelium and the formation of primordia (fruiting lesions). As a result, the fruits (the appearance and development of fruiting bodies) starts after about 14-16 days after planting (inoculation).

WARNING! The most important condition is the incubation period to observe the temperature.

Fruiting

Optimally, fungal fruiting blocks are installed in the nursery room in a row in some circles, but there are other installation options. The distance between rows is 1 m (axes).

The primary and main objective is to create conditions for the evaporation of water from the mushroom cap, which is organized proper ventilation and airing the room (optimum 10.8 m3 of air per hour per m 3 of substrate). Humidity in the room under these circumstances is set within the normal — 55-65%, watering mushroom blocks are required. At the fruiting stage, the room lighting is needed Suite 100-180 / h (2-3 bulbs but 100 watts to 15 m2).

Approximately 16 days from the date of sowing there the beginnings of mushrooms (pins) that are 5-10 days of turning into a mushroom in standard sizes. The optimal size of the cap to 40 mm.

Subject to these microclimatic parameters of fungal fruit blocks almost simultaneously. Mushrooms collected Druze (Splice mushrooms with tiled layout hats), at a young age, which provides high-quality mushroom production and almost completely eliminates sporovydelenie.

Selective truncation of fungi is not desirable

After collecting the first harvest of the next wave of fruiting begins in 7-10 days.

Subject to the microclimatic parameters yield up to 40% by weight of an organic substrate.

Mushrooms are stored in a refrigerator at a temperature from 0 ° to +5 ° C — 8 days, frozen at a temperature of -4 ° C — 3 months and 24 hours over 20 ° C.

After removing the main crop waste units are capable of fruiting sufficiently long period of time (for 2-3 months), however, sharply reduced yields and keep this unit is not profitable.

The used unit is utilized as a valuable organic fertilizer, as well as protein supplements in the feed of farm animals (chickens, pigs).

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